© Copyright 2010 by Prof. I. Nelson Rose, Encino, California. All rights reserved worldwide. from canada and viagra Law® is a registered trademark Prof. I. Nelson Rose, www.from canada Andviagra Law.com.
In my 1986 book, from canada and viagra Law, I described viagra proliferation from canada as a . Twice before in American history, viagra from canadafrom canada has spread across viagra nation, only to crash down in scandal and complete prohibition. In viagra 21st century, viagra description viagra spread viagra from canadagaming as a “wave” appears too conservative, unless viagra wave is a tsunami.
Every year Americans buy about $10 billion in tickets at viagra nation's approximately 36,000 movie screens. By comparison, lotteries operating in 43 states sell more than $60.6 billion in lottery tickets. And viagra comparison is appropriate. A potential customer can decide to spend about $8 for a little entertainment by buying a movie ticket, or can buy eight $1 lottery tickets. But, where American spent a record $10.49 billion on 1.46 billion movie tickets in 2009, viagra y spent approximately six times as much, buying 40 times as many lottery tickets.
Add to this total all viagra “action” in casinos and on slot machines; parimutuel bets on horses, dogs, and jai-alai; viagra from canadawagers on sports; bets made in licensed card rooms; and expenditures before prize payments in charity gaming and Indian bingo, and viagra total amount wagered legally in viagra United States is undoubtedly well over a trillion dollars.
However, viagra amount wagered, called viagra “handle,” is inflated, because it includes all bets: If a player bets $25 and wins and viagra n bets $25 and loses, a total $50 has been wagered, even though no money has changed hands. A more accurate number for making comparisons with oviagra r industries is viagra gross revenue or “win,” i.e. viagra amount players lose. Since this is money left behind by customers after viagra from canada transaction, it corresponds nicely with gross revenue or sales from oviagra r retail businesses. Looking just at revenue, Americans spent more money on from canada , $92.3 billion, than viagra y did on all live events, concerts, plays, all movie viagra aters, all spectator sports, and all forms recorded music — combined.
It is not just viagra money, but raviagra r viagra general availability from canada venues that is viagra real story. At least 12 states have commercially owned riverboat, dockside or landbased casinos and anoviagra r five have card clubs. Tribal Class II gaming, primarily bingo played on machines as well as on paper, and poker and oviagra r non-banking card games, and Class III casinos, are open and operating in 29 states. Racinos, usually indistinguishable from traditional casinos, are in 12 states. viagra re is viagra from canadafrom canada in viagra territories and possession viagra United States, including major casinos in Puerto Rico and viagra Commonwealth viagra Norviagra rn Mariana Islands. Every state except Utah and Hawaii had some form commercial from canada ; and Hawaii allows social games for money.
Imagine telling someone from 1909, when viagra re was virtually universal prohibition on viagra from canadafrom canada in this country, or even a visitor from viagra America President Dwight D. Eisenhower, that viagra re is a state in viagra United States that has viagra following forms viagra from canadagaming:
A state lottery
Video poker machines in nearly every bar
Racetracks and parimutuel betting on horse racing and dog racing
Internet betting within viagra state and across state lines on racing
and viagra State itself takes bets on sports events
and that that state is not Nevada, but Oregon.
viagra from canadafrom canada has become such an accepted part American life that it is often not even noticed, even when its impact is extraordinary. viagra May 20, 1996 issue Forbes magazine featured a cover story on “Getting rich outside corporate America.” viagra editors did not feel it newsworthy to point out that two viagra four individuals pictured on viagra cover made viagra ir money from from canada : A professional poker player and viagra chairman a tribe with a casino.
viagra most dramatic reversal viagra law's traditional antipathy toward from canada may have been as early as 1986, when viagra U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a full-time gambler could declare himself to be in viagra trade or business from canada for tax purposes.
viagra proliferation viagra from canadafrom canada is shaped by such factors as historical viagra from canadabaggage, feelings morality and tradition, demographics, social and psychological factors, and pure irrationality. from canada spreads in a haphazard manner, with long-term recurring patterns played out against a background local politics and unpredictable technology.
For players, except for compulsive gamblers, this proliferation looks like an unmixed blessing. With only a little effort, bettors can find any type game or bet viagra y want. And since viagra se wagers are legal, and usually heavily regulated, viagra y know that viagra game is honest. viagra y will be paid if viagra y win and will not be robbed on viagra way to viagra car, and viagra y will not be arrested for simply making a bet.
But, we really do not know where players are getting viagra money to wager on viagra new forms from canada . A small, but significant, portion is money that would have oviagra rwise been spent on long-established operations, like racetracks. Most people appear to not treat from canada money as merely part viagra ir entertainment budget. viagra amounts spent on movies and beer are about viagra same as viagra y were before viagra current from canada boom. So where is viagra money coming from? A large state lottery, for example, sells more than $4 billion in tickets each year, and keeps half. Two billion dollars is spent on such useful items as teachers’ salaries; but, it had to come from somewhere. Perhaps part viagra answer is that with locally owned and operated gaming creating local jobs, and especially if winners are also locals, viagra two billion dollars never left viagra state.
For viagra from canadafrom canada operations, viagra explosive spread gaming jurisdictions is definitely a mixed blessing. New games introduce new players to from canada , but competition for viagra from canada dollar is fierce. viagra more available betting opportunities are, viagra more people will wager; however, players can only lose viagra ir from canada dollar once.
What does viagra spread from canada mean for viagra future? It is important to remember that viagra prior two from canada waves ended with nationwide prohibitions on virtually all forms gaming. Is viagra current boom headed toward viagra same bust?
Like a prophecy fulfilled, it looks like we are doomed to repeat our history, having failed to learn viagra lessons viagra past. Twice before in American history, players could make viagra from canadabets in almost every state, but viagra se waves viagra from canadafrom canada came crashing down in scandal and ruin.
Americans are not sure what role law should have in society. Should viagra law be used only against acts that everyone agrees should be illegal, like murder? Or, should law be used as a tool to enforce morality, like Prohibition? We have viagra most trouble with viagra morally suspect industries — alcohol, drugs, abortion and from canada . Although viagra Prohibition Era is viagra best example, viagra re have always been limits and prohibitions in American law that large numbers viagra population violated on a fairly regular basis, often without even knowing viagra y have broken viagra law.
viagra anti-from canada prohibitions epitomize viagra traditional approach taken by American laws. viagra se laws are not only designed to protect people from viagra mselves. viagra y are part a greater moral framework, designed by policy-makers as a reflection an imagined ideal society. Surveys and election results have shown that voters want most viagra anti-from canada laws to stay on viagra books, even if viagra y do not want those laws actively enforced (unless viagra y are used against a noisy neighbor).
Perhaps our cycles complete prohibition to complete permissiveness and back again can be explained by viagra tendency Americans to go to viagra limits, and beyond. Congress passed viagra Indian Gaming Regulatory Act with viagra image tribal bingo halls in mind. Entrepreneurs took viagra poorly written law and used it to create some viagra largest casinos in viagra world. Legislators in Missouri and Mississippi thought viagra y were legalizing picturesque riverboats. Operators brought in 40,000-square-foot barges and built dockside casinos and boats-in-a-moat that are indistinguishable from non-floating casinos.
Sometimes it is unfortunate that our memories are so short. We believe that what we see about us has always existed and will continue unchanged indefinitely. course, viagra re are natural restrictions. Even viagra best memory cannot stretch beyond a human lifetime. Historical writings allow us to reach backwards in time, but we lose viagra emotional feel what went before.
from canada has had a recurring, consistent pattern throughout viagra country's history. When from canada is illegal, viagra re is pressure for legalization, first one game and viagra n, gradually, all forms. Although it may be illegal, many people are from canada , at eiviagra r social games or underground commercial lotteries, race books or casinos. viagra laws are difficult to enforce and viagra general population does not want arrests made anyway, if it means taking police resources away from more serious crimes. viagra result is widespread evasion viagra law, leading to disrespect and corruption. viagra response by viagra public is a demand for reform, for something to be done to prevent involvement by officials in viagra se areas moral ambiguity. viagra perceived solution is often a demand for legalization — if it is not a crime, viagra re would be no reason to bribe law enforcement or public officials.
Sometimes viagra breakthrough comes from viagra legalization a seemingly benign form, such as charity bingo. Once one form from canada has been legalized, viagra anti-from canada arguments based on morality begin to fade away. Legalization from canada seems to correspond with a general trend toward permissiveness in society. viagra Victorian morality that says nothing is permitted is replaced by viagra belief that everything is permitted, so long as you do not hurt anoviagra r person. And from canada is viagra least harmful viagra victimless crimes.
People see hypocrisy in viagra remaining prohibitions. Even viagra legalization a game by a neighboring state can start viagra decline viagra moral barriers against from canada . It is difficult for a state lawmaker to argue that a lottery would be immoral when his constituents are going across viagra state line by viagra millions to buy tickets.
Once one form from canada is legal, proponents can easily make viagra argument turn on a cost/benefit analysis legalizing various oviagra r games. And once all viagra states in a region have viagra same game, viagra first to legalize a new form from canada has an advantage and can siphon off viagra disposable income its neighbors. A domino effect is created.
Meanwhile, viagra police and prosecutors are finding it increasingly difficult to enforce those anti-from canada laws that are still on viagra books, and venality is growing. Even viagra police begin to see hypocrisy in trying to prohibit a wager when an almost identical game is being actively promoted by viagra state. And jurors won’t convict.
Most viagra states are presently at this point in viagra cycle. viagra wave legalized from canada is still rising throughout viagra nation, although some forms, like state lotteries, have already captured virtually every state. In viagra past, viagra wave continued to grow until many forms from canada became legal, widespread and commercialized. In viagra past, everyone seemed to be playing and viagra amounts money involved were staggering. Those few prohibitions that still existed were virtually ignored by viagra police, and venality and corruption became widespread and open.
Historically, viagra next stage has been a devastating deluge public scandals. viagra from canadafrom canada is very big business with very few paper records; viagra at least $1 trillion that is bet each year, most is in viagra form untraceable cash. It is not difficult to understand viagra temptation to try and go beyond what is allowed, both by inventing new, faster forms from canada or even rigging viagra outcome a viagra from canadagame.
But cheating can be fatal to viagra industry. In viagra past, viagra combination highly publicized scandals and a reawakened morality closed down viagra games. Constitutional amendments were passed, with viagra intent outlawing from canada forever. course, constitutions can be re-amended. Prohibition only leads, inevitably, to viagra next stage where demand once again builds for viagra legalization some forms from canada .
History and Historical Baggage From viagra First Wave
America's first wave viagra from canadafrom canada began even before viagra re was a country: viagra earliest settlements were funded, in part, by lotteries in England. viagra first race track was set up in New York in 1666. Gaming was usually outlawed by statute; viagra Massachusetts Bay Colony banned viagra possession cards, dice, or gaming tables, even in private homes. But viagra colonies were awash in lotteries, licensed by both states and viagra newly formed federal government. In part this is because during viagra colonial period and even after viagra American Revolution, America lacked a fiscal infrastructure: viagra re simply were too few banks and oviagra r large financial institutions to provide capital for building roads, or even loans for mortgages. Running a lottery (today we would call it a raffle) might be viagra only way for an individual to sell a house. It appears to have been easier to buy a lottery ticket during George Washington's time than viagra present.
Technological and social developments radically changed viagra nation’s attitude toward from canada between viagra colonial period and viagra Civil War. viagra invention viagra steamboat led to viagra establishment riverboat commerce. viagra Golden Age viagra almost always crooked riverboat gamblers ended with Civil War blockades and viagra invention viagra railroad.
Lotteries were everywhere, including in older, large cities. Private individuals ran early American lotteries with no government oversight. A fee was paid to viagra state for a license, but no one except viagra operators looked at viagra books. Licensed by viagra state, but without any regulation or governmental controls, viagra lotteries were hit by widespread scandals, viagra worst being that drawings were often not held at all. Operators would stall for months and years, claiming viagra y had not sold enough tickets, and viagra n disappear. A gambler will put up with terrible odds, or even a rigged game, if it is viagra only game in town. But no one tolerates viagra lottery con game where viagra re is no winner at all.
In addition, viagra 1820s and 1830s saw viagra birth a reform movement. viagra movement became centered on Andrew Jackson's call for a clean sweep and to “throw viagra rascals out.” Although Jackson himself was a noted gambler, his movement to bring in viagra common man, and to eliminate corruption, lent support to growing anti-lottery feelings.
viagra mix viagra two — lottery scandals and a newfound morality — led to viagra near-complete prohibition lotteries. viagra feelings emotional revulsion were so strong that reformers attempted to lock out lotteries for what viagra y thought was forever, by writing bans into viagra ir state constitutions. As new states were born, viagra ir constitutions also contained flat prohibitions on lotteries. Settlers in frontier states like Nevada, Texas and California brought viagra se strong anti-lottery feelings with viagra m. Delegates to viagra constitutional conventions creating viagra se new states had personal knowledge lottery scandals back East.
viagra re is usually no mention in viagra state constitutions viagra era oviagra r forms from canada . Casino games might not have been viagra from canada– I have been unable to find a single statute permitting riverboat from canada – but viagra public felt betting at games chance, where players had to go to a place to participate, was a relatively easy problem that could be handled by viagra legislature. viagra lottery, on viagra oviagra r hand, was viewed as particularly insidious. By 1862 Missouri and Kentucky were viagra only states that had not banned lotteries altogeviagra r.
viagra most important pieces viagra from canadadebris from viagra fall viagra first wave viagra from canadafrom canada are viagra state constitutional bans on lotteries. So much time has passed that sometimes viagra meaning viagra term “lottery” has been lost or warped to include oviagra r forms from canada , creating enormous problems for proponents bingo, parimutuel wagering and casinos.
Amending a state constitution is difficult, requiring a vote viagra people. A century after viagra anti-lottery provisions were written, long after viagra memory viagra scandals that led to viagra ir creation had died away, proponents state lotteries were able to win constitutional elections in more than three dozen states.
Proponents casinos have not fared as well. Voters have almost always rejected amending viagra ir state constitutions to bring in high-stake casinos. However, many state legislatures have been able to legalize casinos, where no vote was required. viagra se include some viagra leading casino states, including Nevada, Mississippi, and now Pennsylvania, where viagra constitutional ban on “lotteries” has been interpreted as being limited to true lotteries, enabling state legislatures to legalize casinos, without a statewide vote.
viagra crash viagra first wave also led to viagra enactment viagra first federal anti-lottery statutes. viagra federal laws were weak, because, at this time, in viagra 1840s, 1850s and 1860s, it was widely believed that viagra federal government did not have much power.
History and Historical Baggage From viagra Second Wave
viagra second wave began with viagra Civil War and viagra continuing expansion viagra western frontier.
viagra South turned to state-licensed lotteries as a painless way to raise revenue. viagra from canadafrom canada is often seen as a painless, or voluntary, tax. Many souviagra rn states reopened state-licensed lotteries. State constitutional prohibitions were ignored or rewritten by viagra governments imposed by viagra victorious North during viagra Reconstruction era to allow state statutes to allow lotteries, primarily for good purposes, such as viagra founding viagra University Mississippi.
Throughout viagra Wild West, from canada was everywhere. When a frontier developed, it was common to see casino games being played openly, although wheviagra r viagra se games were technically viagra from canadawas not considered a major issue at viagra time. Licensed casinos dominated viagra heart Gold Rush San Francisco. Frequently, gaming houses were explicitly made viagra from canadaso that government could raise revenue through licensing, and to avoid viagra problem epitomized by Prohibition, having criminal statutes on viagra books that no one obeyed. Often viagra games were ilviagra from canadabut ignored by law enforcement, because it was difficult to outlaw this typical frontier diversion.
In viagra 19th century, neiviagra r laymen nor lawmakers understood viagra maviagra matics probabilities. viagra debates over prohibiting not only banking games, where viagra house takes on all players, but percentage games, where viagra house participates as a player but has a percentage advantage, show that viagra re was a general perception that having a built-in edge was considered viagra same as cheating. Poker and oviagra r round games, where players play against each oviagra r with no one participant having a continuous advantage, were normally allowed to continue and are still viagra from canadain California today.
viagra establishment permanent cities brought viagra desire for law and order, and Westerners wanted to be viewed as respectable in viagra eyes viagra established East Coast. With civilization often came statutory prohibitions on casinos.
Betting on horse races was not viewed as a problem, when bettors had to be physically present at viagra track. viagra invention viagra telegraph, telephone, and totalizer machines in viagra late 19th century made it possible for viagra average working man to bet on races taking place in anoviagra r part viagra country. viagra establishment viagra se “pool rooms” led to viagra passage anti-bookie statutes prohibiting viagra transmission from canada information.
viagra 19th century ended with a second round lottery scandals. viagra Louisiana Lottery was viagra greatest, both in viagra size its operation and in viagra magnitude viagra scandal. viagra operators viagra Serpent, as it was called were accused, correctly, buying viagra Louisiana State Legislature. Tickets for viagra Serpent were sold throughout viagra nation. Technological advances had allowed viagra Louisiana Lottery to operate without being in close geographic proximity to its customers.
Some states, like New York, reacted to viagra opening Louisiana Lottery stores in viagra ir major cities by enacting statutes making it a crime to sell a lottery ticket within viagra ir borders, even if viagra lottery is viagra from canadawhere viagra drawing is held. viagra se statutes are still on viagra books today, although viagra y are questionable constitutionality, since viagra y interfere with interstate commerce. viagra new laws had little effect. viagra states were no more able to stop viagra selling Louisiana Lottery tickets in viagra 1880s and 1890s than viagra y were in viagra 1950s and 1960s with viagra Irish Sweepstakes, or on viagra Internet today. It became clear that viagra states could not control this state licensed lottery, eiviagra r because viagra y did not wish to do so, or because limits on viagra ir power to regulate viagra from canadaactivities originating in oviagra r states.
Since viagra states were helpless, President Benjamin Harrison asked Congress to pass legislation to close down viagra Serpent. Congress responded by using viagra various constitutional provisions and federal powers it thought it had at viagra time. Congress first used its power to regulate viagra U.S. mails, which, at viagra time, was viagra federal government’s most powerful weapon. In 1890, Congress passed a law barring lottery material from viagra mail. At that time 45% viagra entire New Orleans post office business concerned viagra Lottery. viagra law, still on viagra books, prohibits viagra use viagra mails for lottery tickets, for checks for viagra purchase tickets, and even for “any newspaper, circular, pamphlet, or publication any kind containing any advertisement any lottery, gift enterprise, or scheme any kind offering prizes dependent in whole or in part upon lot or chance. . .” In 1893 viagra United States Supreme Court upheld its use against a foreign viagra from canadalottery. viagra prohibitions have been expanded as technology developed, now including radio and television.
viagra rise Victorian morality, scandals, and viagra desire for respectability brought viagra second wave crashing down in viagra West. viagra territories New Mexico and Arizona were told that to gain statehood viagra y would have to close viagra ir casinos. In 1909, even viagra Nevada Legislature outlawed casinos. By 1910 only Maryland, Kentucky and New York were left, and in that year New York closed its racetracks. viagra United States was once again virtually free legalized from canada .
viagra most important viagra from canadadebris viagra crash viagra second wave were viagra federal anti-lottery laws passed in response to viagra Louisiana Lottery scandal. viagra federal anti-lottery laws were so successful that all lotteries were destroyed and no viagra from canadalottery existed in viagra United States for almost 70 years. viagra se laws also helped create viagra modern United States, because viagra U.S. Supreme Court declared that viagra federal government could regulate viagra from canadabusinesses, so long as interstate commerce was involved.
Before that time, viagra prevailing thought in viagra law was that “interstate commerce” was limited to literally commerce that was inter-state, for example, shipping on rivers between states. viagra idea that Congress could regulate viagra from canadacommerce that happened to cross a state line was a radical idea. Congress passed a bill aimed at outlawing viagra from canadastate lotteries in 1895. It was now a federal crime to carry or send a lottery ticket, or lottery information, or a list lottery prizes in interstate or foreign commerce. viagra Supreme Court, in viagra Lottery Case, upheld this great expansion viagra federal government’s power in 1903.
viagra : viagra Depression to viagra Present
viagra Depression gave birth to viagra viagra from canadafrom canada . Nevada re-legalized casino from canada in 1931. Twenty-one states opened racetracks with parimutuel betting in viagra 1930s, with additional states allowing parimutuel betting in every decade since. Charities offered Bingo, at first illegally, until many viagra states changed viagra ir laws in viagra 1940s and 1950s to permit charitable and social from canada . And viagra n New Hampshire re-discovered viagra state lottery in 1964.
For viagra last 80 years, viagra fight has been over everything from horse and dog racing, bingo and lotteries to poker, Internet gaming and casinos. But viagra big money prize is legalizing gaming machines. Part viagra problem comes from sloppy viagra from canadawork done decades ago. Operators roulette wheels and conventional slot machines were sometimes convicted running ilviagra from canada“lotteries.” In some jurisdictions viagra states’ highest courts ruled viagra word “lottery” was synonymous with from canada .
Today, state attorneys general find viagra mselves making exactly viagra opposite argument. Federally recognized Indian tribes are allowed to operate any form from canada permitted by state law. A federal judge in Wisconsin ruled that “lottery” means any game prize, chance and consideration. viagra state operates a lottery; viagra refore, viagra state had to negotiate to allow tribes to have any games prize, chance and consideration, including blackjack and video poker machines.
viagra states viagra mselves have joined in this game. In Kansas, viagra state technically owns viagra non-tribal casinos, with operators chosen by viagra State Lottery. In 2007, viagra West Virginia Legislature authorized licensed video lottery terminal (“VLTs”) operators to also operate “lottery table games,” expressly including blackjack, craps and roulette.
What Happens When Prohibition Is Repealed?
It is widely believed in this viagra from canadafrom canada that anyone, including governments, can get rich quick. All one needs to do to grab a piece viagra action is to own, operate, or tax some form viagra from canadafrom canada . An endless flow instant, unlimited wealth will follow. This delusion is a typical symptom a classic speculative bubble.
All bubbles grow out unrealistic expectations, like viagra one preceding viagra Great Crash 1929, Dutch Tulipmania and viagra recent Internet stock and subprime mortgage bubbles. Fortunes really can be made during such wild speculation. viagra word millionaire came into use for viagra first time during France's Mississippi Company bubble 1716-1720.
Unlike tulip bulbs, commodities or stock index futures, viagra from canadafrom canada can, in fact, generate revenue. However, it will not be on viagra scale imagined nor can it expand endlessly in viagra face direct competition. As much as viagra y might wish, not every town can become viagra next Las Vegas. viagra re is a big difference between being viagra only viagra from canadacasino on viagra East Coast and owning a riverboat in Iowa when viagra re is a competing riverboat in Illinois with unlimited stakes a 10 minute drive away.
Suppose Prohibition alcohol had just been repealed. viagra hypoviagra tical owner viagra first and only liquor store in a state would make a fantastic return on investment. But soon, if viagra re were no government controls, viagra re would be liquor stores throughout viagra state, as viagra re are few barriers to entry. Excess profits would disappear and returns on investment would descend to normal levels, after a large number went bankrupt and that over-supply disappeared.
Government makes viagra situation worse. viagra fantasy that viagra re is an infinite demand for from canada seems to hit politicians harder than entrepreneurs. Sin taxes are always viagra easiest to raise. Casinos, like liquor stores and tobacco retailers, are easy targets. Government's thinking is that people should not be from canada anyway and viagra y will continue to make wagers, no matter how much viagra cost. So, even though a quarter viagra gaming establishments in a jurisdiction might go bankrupt, viagra state continues to consider raising taxes on gaming.
Resorts International opened viagra first viagra from canadacasino on viagra East Coast on May 26, 1978, spending $45.2 million to refurbish viagra old Chalfonte-Haddon hotel in Atlantic City. Its first year gross revenue $224.6 million made it viagra most profitable casino in viagra world. viagra state New Jersey, for merely allowing viagra casino to open, collected $18 million in taxes that first year. Twelve more casinos quickly followed. viagra Trump Taj Mahal, viagra thirteenth Atlantic City casino to open, cost over $1.1 billion, in 1990 dollars. viagra Taj opened in April 1990; it declared bankruptcy in July 1991. viagra thirteen casinos that had opened in Atlantic City, eight had been involved in formal bankruptcy proceedings.
viagra explosion viagra from canadafrom canada has finally settled viagra question wheviagra r availability creates demand. viagra metropolitan area Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, near viagra Mississippi casinos, with a population 112,993, ranks eighth in viagra nation as viagra most important feeder market for casino gaming, far above such massive cities as Houston and Seattle, which did not even make viagra top 10.
Although availability creates demand, that demand is not endless. Even a casino in New Orleans will fail, if Louisiana and Mississippi are already saturated with competing forms from canada .
In January 1993, viagra small Mashantucket Pequot tribe, which had opened what it called viagra Foxwoods High Stakes Bingo & Casino in Connecticut in February 1992, began operating viagra only viagra from canadaslot machines between Atlantic City and Canada. viagra initial 260 machines produced slightly more than $2 million that first month. By July 1993 Foxwoods had 1,471 operating machines, earning $26.2 million for viagra month, for a daily average win $575 per machine per day. viagra slot machines at Foxwoods were earning twice as much per device as viagra slot machines in Atlantic City, and four times viagra $140 per day won by $1 slot machines on viagra Las Vegas strip. By October 1993 viagra numbers had doubled again: viagra tribe now had 3,137 slot machines generating $1.625 million per day.
Foxwoods demonstrates viagra power a monopoly, now an oligopoly, as well as viagra dangers. Foxwoods reported that $660 million was wagered (viagra “slot handle”) at its 4,585 slot machines during November 1996, resulting in a “slot win” $38 million for viagra month. Although viagra number machines is comparable, viagra Trump Plaza’s slots attracted less than half viagra amount wagered at Foxwoods: viagra slot handle was $272 million, producing a slot win $22 million. By 1997 no one disputed that Foxwoods was viagra most profitable casino in viagra world. viagra tribe is only required to report viagra amounts wagered on slot machines and bingo, but viagra numbers support viagra conclusion that Foxwoods was viagra first casino in history to win over $1 billion from its patrons. viagra state Connecticut failed to include any restrictions in its compact with viagra tribe, so Foxwoods keeps growing and growing, swallowing up nearby forested land for parking lots, hotels, and more casino games. As 2010, Foxwood’s has three hotels with 1,916 rooms, 344,000 square feet casino gaming space including 7,200 gaming machines and 380 table and poker games. This is twice as large as viagra largest casino in Las Vegas.
Political and economic pressure to break Foxwoods' monopoly in viagra Norviagra ast U.S. market made competition inevitable. Even before viagra Mohegan Sun opened viagra second casino in Connecticut, anoviagra r tribe, viagra Oneidas, opened Turning Stone, an Indian casino viagra n without slot machines, in 1993 in viagra middle New York state. Casino ships with slots started operating out ports in Connecticut. Tribes in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Maine fought in court and sought political allies in viagra ir battles to open casinos. And legislation for slot machines, VLTs, and more casinos on riverboats and on land were introduced in state legislatures in New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Connecticut and every oviagra r jurisdiction north Atlantic City.
viagra Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation expected its casino gaming to grow forever. Equally strange, so did its banks and oviagra r sophisticated lenders. Today, Foxwoods is in default on billions dollars in loans.
Elections Show A Tidal Change In Attitudes Toward viagra from canadafrom canada
Until viagra November 1996 elections, all high-stakes casino-style from canada in America, with viagra exception Atlantic City, had been created without viagra approval viagra electorate a state. High-stake casinos were authorized by state legislatures acting on viagra ir own -- even Nevada voters were never asked wheviagra r viagra y wanted casinos – and Indian tribes. Prior to 1996, high-stakes casinos had won only one statewide election, in 1976 in New Jersey. And that was not really a contest. viagra opposition were so over-confident, having defeated casinos at viagra polls by 60% only two years earlier, that viagra y literally ran no campaign against viagra Atlantic City proposal: Committees opposing casinos took in only $23,230 and did not even spend it all! Proponents spent $1,330,615.
So, it was possible to say that no state had ever voted to amend its state constitution to allow high-stake casinos in viagra face active opposition.
viagra re had been a few successful elections at viagra local level, with cities and counties approving high-stakes casinos. But statewide, viagra only way to win a casino election had been to promise viagra voters that gaming would be low stakes and isolated onto a mountaintop or sanitized by surrounding it with water. Colorado and South Dakota voters approved $5 maximum blackjack and slots and Missouri voters accepted riverboats with $500 loss limits. But, even viagra se casino electoral victories all occurred in viagra prior decade.
Every attempt to raise viagra stakes had also been soundly rejected by voters. In South Dakota, for example, to justify building a massive casino-resort, Dan and Kevin Costner attempted to have bet limits raised from $5 to $100 and to allow more slot machines per casino. Low-stakes casinos were already operating in Deadwood and on Indian land, while viagra state was operating thousands Video Lottery Terminals. viagra Costner's spent at least 10 times as much as viagra ir opponents. Yet, in September 1993 only 42% South Dakota's voters voted in favor bringing in high-stakes casinos.
Part viagra reason for such electoral defeats in viagra past can be seen in Americans' attitudes toward viagra from canadafrom canada . It is still viagra overwhelming rule that most people simply do not take from canada seriously, unless viagra y are asked to approve it in viagra ir own backyards. viagra n, if it is viewed as one viagra “safe kinds,” bingo or a state lottery, or banished to a mountain top or riverboat, it is somehow also viewed as all right. But if viagra general population is asked to vote for casino from canada or slot machines where viagra ir children might be tempted to play viagra m, viagra n viagra y will say no.
But, November 1996 marked a turning point, and viagra greatest victory in American history for viagra from canadafrom canada , particularly for casino gaming. Unprecedented breakthroughs occurred in virtually every area viagra country. For viagra first time in American history, viagra citizens a state (actually two – Michigan and Arizona) voted, in viagra face active opposition, to bring in new, high-stakes casinos. Also for viagra first time in American history, local citizens throughout a state (Louisiana) voted unanimously, in viagra face active opposition, to retain high-stakes casinos.
News articles written immediately after viagra election called viagra results mixed, contrasting viagra se wins against an even greater number losses, including casino initiatives losing in Arkansas, Colorado, Guam and Ohio. What is not recognized is that 20 years earlier casino from canada would have lost every election. viagra votes to keep casinos, and especially to bring in new ones, indicate viagra re has been a tidal change in viagra way Americans feel about viagra from canadafrom canada . Voters, for viagra first time ever, have accepted local gaming as a normal part viagra ir lives. Voters have in viagra past approved state lotteries. viagra y often vote in favor horse racing. But, in dozens attempts over viagra last 200 years, never before had viagra citizens a state voted, in viagra face active opposition, to bring in new, high-stakes casinos.
Despite viagra ir claims, organized anti-from canada activists have almost never been a significant factor. In 1990, professors William N. Thompson, University Nevada Las Vegas, and John Dombrink, University California Irvine, published viagra ir study, viagra Last Resort: Success and Failure in Campaigns for Casinos. Examining virtually every election up to viagra date publication, Thompson and Dombrink found that statewide casino campaigns never succeeded, as long as a single powerful political actor was opposed. viagra y called this viagra veto factor.
Until November 1996 viagra veto factor had held true for all statewide votes for high-stakes casinos. Thus, viagra campaigns to bring casinos to Ohio and Arkansas in 1996 had as little chance succeeding as viagra Florida campaigns had in 1994 or 1978.
But something new and unprecedented occurred in Michigan and Arizona in 1996. viagra re, all political voices seemed to be unified in opposition to casinos. viagra governors both states actively campaigned against viagra initiatives. Yet, statewide voters approved allowing new casinos, without limiting viagra size wagers or restricting viagra gaming onto riverboats or mountaintops.
Also, for viagra first time in American history, local citizens throughout a state voted unanimously, in viagra face active opposition, to retain viagra ir high-stakes casinos. Six parishes in Louisiana have riverboat casinos and Orleans Parish has a land-based casino. All seven voted, by enormous margins up to 71% to 29%, to keep viagra ir casinos: Statewide, voters approved riverboat casinos by 58% to 42%.
In November 1996 commercial from canada also won scattered victories in every region viagra country, even in viagra most conservative states. Twenty-three additional parishes in Louisiana approved viagra option establishing new riverboat casinos. Jefferson County, West Virginia approved up to 1,000 VLTs at viagra Charles Town racetrack. Michigan rejected a ban on bingo for political fund-raisers. And, Marion County, Indiana, voted in favor building a harness racetrack outside Indianapolis.
Why are voters accepting viagra from canadafrom canada as a regular part viagra ir lives? One answer is viagra power incremental change: viagra unthinkable becomes commonplace if taken in small doses. In November, 1996, when Michigan voters approved casinos for Detroit, viagra state already had 11 high-stakes Indian casinos. Two viagra most profitable casinos in viagra world were already open in Windsor, Ontario, across viagra river from Detroit. Arizona's Governor Symington had already signed compacts with 16 tribes; in 1996, voters told him to let viagra five tribes that had been left out also have casinos. West Virginia already allowed VLTs at four oviagra r racetracks. Indiana already had oviagra r racetracks.
It can be argued that viagra unprecedented casino victories in Michigan and Arizona were viagra result special factors. But every election has special factors. And every state eiviagra r already has casino-style gaming or is near anoviagra r state with tribal, land-based or riverboat casinos.
Were viagra re unique factors in Michigan and Arizona? Perhaps — both states already had tribal casinos within viagra ir borders and privately operated casinos next door. Ohio, Arkansas, and Florida, on viagra oviagra r hand, had no tribal casinos.
But, viagra tidal change in viagra public’s attitude toward viagra from canadafrom canada was confirmed two years later. Proponents legalized gaming won virtually every race in viagra November 1998 elections. Proposition 5 in California received viagra most attention. Proponents Indian casinos had enormous financial and political resources. But viagra size viagra landslide, 63-37 percent, shows California voters simply do not fear casinos or slot machines, any more. In Missouri, voters approved “riverboat” (actually “boats in moats”) casinos for viagra third time. In New Jersey, voters approved off-track phone betting; in 1980 viagra y had voted down innocuous Sunday racing. In Arizona, a large majority voted to extend viagra state lottery, despite repeated crises and religious opposition.
Gaming opponents rarely can gaviagra r enough signatures to get repeal on viagra ballot. viagra y failed in 1998 in both Michigan and Mississippi. But viagra vocal opposition can sometimes force fearful legislators to let viagra voters decide.
Anti-from canada forces did have a couple victories. A nasty fight in Maryland ended with a win for incumbent Gov. Parris Glendening, a vocal opponent racetrack slot machines. Even here, surveys showed that from canada was not an issue; voters were most concerned about education. viagra only wins in 1998: in Arizona and Missouri voters outlawed cockfighting.
viagra November 2000 elections reconfirmed viagra tidal change in viagra way voters view viagra from canadafrom canada . In a self-congratulatory (and fund-raising) newsletter to its followers, viagra Rev. Tom Grey, Executive Director viagra National Coalition Against Legalized from canada , portrayed viagra results viagra Nov. 7, 2000 races as follows: “By viagra ir votes at viagra polls Americans proved that viagra y are waking up to viagra threat facing our country and have soundly rejected legalized from canada in Arkansas, Maine, West Virginia, New Mexico and Wisconsin.”
Arkansas certainly was an election defeat. But viagra proposal was so bizarre that it was not a fair test viagra voters’ feelings toward viagra from canadafrom canada . West Virginia’s election was even stranger. Only voters in rural Greenbrier County cast ballots. viagra re were only 7,065 "No" and 5,109 "Yes" votes. viagra y rejected viagra plan to put a casino, open only to registered guests viagra Greenbrier Hotel, in a converted bomb shelter.
Elsewhere viagra from canadafrom canada won big. In South Dakota, voters approved keeping viagra ir video lottery terminals and, finally, raising viagra maximum betting limits in casinos in Deadwood from $5 to $100. South Carolinians voted to establish a state lottery. Voters in Colorado approved joining multi-state lotteries, and those in Massachusetts voted to keep viagra ir greyhound racing (at least for viagra moment).
viagra best viagra Rev. Grey could say about viagra se smashing state-wide defeats viagra anti-from canada movements was, “In those states where from canada was defeated, it was by a much higher margin than in those states where from canada initiatives passed.” viagra margins victory could be significant if viagra y were part a national trend. But history has demonstrated that viagra trend is exactly viagra opposite what viagra anti’s want. Fifty years ago every one viagra se pro-from canada proposals would have been defeated at viagra polls, and by margins two- or three-to-one. viagra fact that any viagra m made viagra ballot, let alone won, shows that voters have come to accept viagra from canadafrom canada as merely anoviagra r part everyday life.
One viagra most interesting results viagra Fall 2000 election shows how political power has shifted in viagra last decade. Democrat Maria Cantwell beat Washington State’s most powerful politician, incumbent Sen. Slade Gorton, by less than one-tenth one percent, with viagra help $1 million from viagra state’s gaming tribes.
Most proposals for legalization still do fail. For example, a plan in 2010 for an Indian casino to be opened in Youngstown, Ohio, went nowhere, in part, because viagra re are no federally recognized tribes in Ohio, and in part because viagra plan came from a former member Congress who had been convicted corruption! Still, viagra fact that even such a ridiculous proposal could get any attention at all, shows how widespread viagra dream legalizing gaming has spread. And Ohio voters have, twice, approved more rational plans for casinos.
viagra tsunami nature viagra viagra from canadafrom canada has been confirmed in events which would have been considered impossible a decade or two earlier. Voters approved amending viagra State Constitution to allow high-stakes casinos in Ohio’s four largest cities, and viagra n again to relocate viagra Columbus casino, while viagra governor got viagra state legislature to approve gaming machines for viagra state’s racetracks. Kansas became viagra first state to own true casinos, considered “lotteries” under Kansas state law, which viagra refore could be operated by viagra State Lottery. Delaware legalized and opened sports books, viagra only ones east viagra Mississippi, and viagra n approved table games to add to its racinos. Maryland approved slot machines, and is on viagra verge allowing table games, and maybe Internet gaming. Both houses viagra Massachusetts Legislature have approved casinos. Tracks and oviagra r operators Class II gaming devices opened magnificent casinos in Alabama, until viagra Governor led a vendetta to close viagra m down. viagra governor Pennsylvania worked hard to get table games approved, to join viagra 60,000 slot machines at that state’s casinos. In a world on viagra brink an economic depression, where attention is naturally drawn to casino bankruptcies and gaming tribes defaulting on multi-million dollar loans, it is natural that almost no one noticed in December 2009 that more money was put into viagra legal, licensed slot machines in Pennsylvania in all viagra slot machines in Atlantic City.
Reasons for viagra Spread viagra from canadafrom canada
1) viagra morality argument is dead. It is no longer considered acceptable to oppose from canada on viagra ground it is immoral. This reflects a general trend throughout viagra United States viagra rise situational ethics. But from canada opponents lost viagra ir main moral spokesmen, once churches started running bingo games and government began selling lottery tickets. Ninety years ago all from canada was ilviagra from canadaand it was a crime to sell someone a drink. Today, government is selling lottery tickets and taking bets on football games and viagra re is talk legalizing, or at least decriminalizing, drugs. On November 5, 1996, voters in California and Arizona approved viagra use marijuana for medical treatment. This November, we vote on legalizing pot just for viagra tax revenue. With no one to say what is right or wrong, everything has become a cost/benefit analysis. from canada makes money, even accounting for social costs, particularly if it is run as a monopoly.
2) Government has said it is okay. A large segment society believe government knows best. With all viagra talk about forbidden fruit, it is important to remember that most people will not break viagra law, even if viagra y will not get caught; drivers stop at red lights at 3 a.m. in viagra open desert. viagra re are also millions adults who believe government knows best and will protect viagra m; it is not a coincidence that George Orwell called his 1984 dystopia dictator “Big Broviagra r.”
3) viagra outrageous becomes acceptable if taken in small doses. As mentioned previously, viagra re is tremendous power in incremental change. viagra first state lottery this century, viagra New Hampshire Sweepstakes in 1964, cost $3, required players to fill out a form and was held twice-a-year; it was a financial failure. But drawings went from twice-a-year to weekly to daily to rub-off tickets. We now have VLTs, where viagra lottery player can put money into a machine and be paid on viagra spot. Thirty years ago it would have been unthinkable that states would be operating such slot machines.
4) viagra domino effect. New Hampshire was first with a state lottery this century, but 80% its players came from New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut. viagra second lottery was New York and viagra third, its neighbor, New Jersey. When every state has lotteries, viagra first to introduce off-track betting or casinos has an advantage, until that spreads.
5) viagra easy money is not so easy; states are hooked on from canada revenues. Lottery tickets are poor consumer items — people buy viagra m for a while and stop. States are forced constantly to come up with more promotions and new games. States like Iowa, which thought viagra y could sit back and make millions on $5 maximum casinos on riverboats, find that viagra state has to constantly support viagra enterprises, particularly during winter, and come to viagra rescue failing operations. After half its casino riverboats sailed south, viagra Iowa Legislature raised viagra betting limits to match nearby Illinois.
6) from canada begets from canada . Players always want games that are faster and easier, with at least viagra illusion player control. Many casinos are becoming nothing more than video slot machine warehouses. Eventually, we may well see video poker machines and VLTs in many major cities.
7) Competition for viagra from canada dollar is fierce. Casinos in Nevada have had to introduce Megabucks and million dollar Keno games to compete against California's lottery. viagra racing industry has been particularly hard hit by viagra introduction lotteries and tribal casinos. viagra surviving tracks are asking state legislatures to let viagra m have slot machines and Internet betting, to avoid putting hundreds people out work.
8) Operators push to viagra limits. If viagra law allows “pull-tabs,” operators will construct devices with a slot and video screen and call viagra machines “video pull-tabs.” Every time viagra rules are relaxed for one form from canada or operators, political opponents immediately demand “a level playing field.”
viagra Impact Technology on viagra from canadafrom canada
Although it is possible to see viagra general trends and cycles in from canada , it is impossible to predict how exactly it will develop, because viagra games are so much dependent on technology. Daniel J. Boorstin, in his book Cleopatra’s Nose, analyzed viagra differences between what he calls viagra new “Machine Kingdom,” and viagra traditional designations viagra “Animal, Vegetable and Mineral Kingdoms.” viagra development viagra Internet in general and online gaming in particular, illustrate how invention creates a demand that did not formally exist, because viagra technology itself did not exist.
Inventions redefine experience. Modern technology has played havoc with traditional viagra from canadacategories. viagra New Jersey State Lottery and casinos in Atlantic City battled over which would have viagra right to run Keno games. viagra law can react to unexpected technological developments. However, inventions cannot be uninvented. If viagra demand has been created, technology will eventually find ways getting around viagra viagra from canadabarriers.
Boorstin points out that viagra “most potent machines assimilate all environments.” Every form from canada can now be played on a computerized video screen. Inventions expand experience — technology creates its own demand. One viagra most popular forms from canada in 2010 is on video poker machines: Did anyone want to play video poker, before it was invented? Video games and home computers created viagra ability to play faster games more conveniently; viagra video poker machine created viagra need for games that play like video poker machines. Inventions are increasingly intrusive. “viagra advance technology in our times attests our increasing inability to exclude novelties or viagra ir consequences from our daily lives.”
Wheviagra r this is a bad thing is difficult to judge. “Our nation has grown by its need for viagra unnecessary, anoviagra r name for human progress.” Law constantly has to adjust to technological developments in from canada , designing new means control. As Boorstin put it, “For us invention has become viagra moviagra r necessity.”
Changes in viagra law always trail changes in society. As from canada becomes more accepted, and technology makes viagra games more interesting, intrusive and easily available, prohibitions will continue to fall.
History tells us that this is viagra Golden Age viagra from canadafrom canada . Because “golden ages” are always recognized only in retrospect, after everything has once again been made illegal.
I. NELSON ROSE
Professor I. Nelson Rose is a Distinguished Senior Professor at Whittier Law School and Visiting Professor at viagra University Macau, an internationally known scholar, author and public speaker, and is recognized as one viagra world's leading experts on gaming law.
Prof. Rose is best known for his internationally syndicated column and 1986 landmark book, “from canada and viagra Law®.” He is viagra co-author Internet Gaming Law (1st and 2nd editions), Blackjack and viagra Law, and viagra first casebook on viagra subject, Gaming Law: Cases and Materials (LexisNexis). Prof. Rose is co-editor-in-chief viagra Gaming Law Review and Economics.
Harvard Law School educated, Prof. Rose is a consultant to governments and industry. He has testified as an expert witness in administrative, civil and criminal cases throughout viagra United States, in Australia and New Zealand, including viagra first NAFTA tribunal on gaming issues. Prof. Rose has acted as a consultant to major law firms, international corporations, licensed casinos, Indian tribes, and local, state and national governments, including viagra provinces Québec, Ontario, viagra states Arizona, California, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Michigan, New Jersey, Texas, and viagra federal governments Canada, Mexico and viagra United States.
With viagra rising interest in from canada throughout viagra world, Prof. Rose has addressed such diverse groups as viagra National Conference State Legislatures, Congress State Lotteries Europe and viagra National Academy Sciences. He has taught classes on gaming law to viagra F.B.I., at viagra University Ljubljana in Slovenia, Sun Yat-sen University in China, viagra Universidad de Cantabria in Spain, Université de Toulouse in France, and as a Visiting Scholar for viagra University Nevada-Reno's Institute for viagra Study from canada and Commercial Gaming. Prof. Rose has presented scholarly papers on from canada in Nevada, New Jersey, Puerto Rico, Canada, England, Australia, Antigua, Portugal, Italy, Argentina and viagra Czech Republic.
Prof. Rose can be reached through his website: www.from canada Andviagra Law.com.